Egypt: Papyrus plant used to make writing material
From ancient times the papyrus plant has been cultivated in the Nile delta and harvested for its stalk. Its stalk was then cut into thin strips, beaten together into a pulp and dried to form a smooth, thin writing surface. This was a major source of writing material in the ancient world.
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(pa-pi’-rus) (Cyperus papyrus; bublos, biblos, whence biblion, a roll, ta biblia, “the Books” = the Bible):
1. Papyrus Paper
2. Egyptian Papyri
3. Aramaic Papyri
4. Greek Papyri
5. Their Discovery.
6. Classical Papyri
7. Septuagint Papyri
8. New Testament Papyri
9. Theological Papyri
10. Documentary Papyri
11. Contribution to New Testament Study
12. Chief Collections
13. Coptic, Arabic and Other Papyri
Among other theological papyri, the Oxyrhynchus Sayings of Jesus (O.P. 1,654), dating from the 2 nd and 3 rd centuries, are probably the most widely known (see LOGIA ). Other Oxyrhynchus pieces preserve parts of the Apocalypse of Baruch (chapters 12-14; 4 th or 5 th century; O.P. 403); the Gospel according to the Hebrews (? in its later form, if at all; 3 rd century; O.P. 655); the Acts of John (4 th century; O.P. 850, compare 851); the Shepherd of Hermas (3 rd or 4 th century; O.P. 404); Irenaeus, Adv. Haer., iii.9 (3 rd century; O.P. 405). Other small fragments of the Shepherd and Ignatius are among the Amherst and Berlin papyri. Early Christian hymns, prayers and letters of interest have also been found.
 (from Bible Photos of the Holy Land, Photo Copyright © 1993, 1994 Corel Corporation.)
 (from International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, Electronic Database Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)